LED Online Seminar 2018 - Working Group 12

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Dear working group members. This is your group page and you will be completing the template gradually as we move through the seminar. Good luck and enjoy your collaboration!

Assignment 1 - Reading and Synthesizing Core Terminology

  • You can read more details about this assignment here
  • Readings are accessible via the resources page

Step 1: Your Landscape Democracy Manifestoes

Step 2: Define your readings

  • Please add your readings selection for the terminology exercise before April 18:

A: Landscape and Democracy

The New Urban Agenda Quito Declaration on Sustainable Cities and Human Settlements for All, UN resolution from December 2016 - Susanna Patata

Directive 2003/35/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 May 2003 providing for public participation in respect of the drawing up of certain plans and programmes relating to the environment and amending with regard to public participation and access to justice Council Directives 85/337/EEC and 96/61/EC - Statement by the Commission - Eric Vitrier

B: Concepts of Participation

Day, Christopher (2002): Consensus Design, Architectural Press - Petar Jurički

Hester, Randolph (1999): A Refrain with a View, UC Berkeley - Susanna Patata

C: Community and Identity

Welk Von Mossner, Alexa (2014): Cinematic Landscapes, In: Topos, No. 88, 2014. - Petar Jurički

Girling, Cynthia (2006): Informing Design Charrettes, The Integrated Assessment Journal - Mahsa Bazrafshan - 미안해 already taken -

Girling, Cynthia (2006): Informing Design Charrettes, The Integrated Assessment Journal - Eric Vitrier

D: Designing

Hester, Randolph: Democratic Drawing - Techniques for Participatory Design - Petar Jurički

Hester, Randolph: Democratic Drawing - Techniques for Participatory Design- R.Rahimi

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (2013): Places in the Making: How Placemaking Builds Places and Communities - Mahsa Bazrafshan

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (2013): Places in the Making: How Placemaking Builds Places and Communities - R.Rahimi

Woodcraft, Saffron, et al.: Design for Social Sustainability: A Framework for Creating Thriving New Communities - Susanna Patata

Woodcraft, Saffron, et al.: Design for Social Sustainability: A Framework for Creating Thriving New Communities- R.Rahimi

E: Communicating a Vision

Goldstein, B. E., A. T. Wessells, R. Lejano, and W. Butler. 2015. Narrating Resilience: Transforming Urban Systems Through Collaborative Storytelling. Urban Studies. 52 (7): 1285-1303. Eric Vitrier 'Reading the Landscape' by Simon Bell, EMU Tartu - R.Rahimi

Steps 3 and 4: Concepts Selection and definition

  • Each group member selects three relevant concepts derived from his/her readings and synthesize them/publish them on the wiki by May 9, 2018
  • Group members reflect within their groups and define their chosen concepts into a shared definition to be posted on the wiki by June 6, 2018.
  • Other group members will be able to comment on the definitions until June 12, 2018
  • Each group will also report on their process to come to a set of shared definitions of key landscape democracy concepts on the wiki documentation until June 20, 2018

Concepts and definitions

Author 1: Susanna Patata

  • Concept 1: The New Urban Agenda was adopted at the United Nations Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development (Habitat III) in Quito on 2016. Represents a shared vision for a better and more sustainable future where everybody have equal rights and access to the benefits and opportunities that the city can offer. The urban community reconsiders the urban system and physical form of our urban spaces to achieve this objective and recognize the correlation between good urbanization and development. It follows the principle of inclusivity; the meaningful inclusion of slum dwellers; the involvement of a wide range of stakeholders group, which have a critical role to play in the implementation of this shared vision. (The New Urban Agenda Quito Declaration on Sustainable Cities and Human Settlements for All, UN resolution from December 2016)
  • Concept 2:Hester’s paper explore the development of participation. Since from the foundation of U.S. the local participation was considered an important right. With the professionalizing city management starts the separation of the citizens from the decisions about their landscape and the professionals assumed more and more responsibility in community design. With the creation of civil movements, the advocacy planning served the civil rights movement but it has had profound unintentional side effects that run counter to its original goals: visionary public plans. Participatory design has been transformed over the past three decades. Some trends evolved, some revised and all became more complex and varied depending upon local context. Today more people participate in local planning than before. The step for participatory design have to promote fairness and encourage creativity and innovation. (Hester, Randolph (1999): A Refrain with a View, UC Berkeley)
  • Concept 3:The paper try to understanding how to plan and develop successful and socially sustainable communities. Building community is considered as important as designing in physical, economic and sustainable terms. The ‘social design’ approach must be considered in the practice of professionals involved in the design process of new and existed communities. The challenge to find a better planning practice is requested by the increasing pressure of urban population, climate change and ageing societies. The key of this good practice should begin from the awareness of how local identity and social networks influence people’s feelings of belonging to places in order to create more resilient and high quality communities. It discussed the fail experience of architecture that created isolated residents and dead, inflexible and costly spaces to maintain. (Woodcraft, Saffron, et al.: Design for Social Sustainability: A Framework for Creating Thriving New Communities)

Author 2: Petar Jurički

  • Concept 1: Author thinks that the democracy is sometimes not the best solution for working out certain problems and for decision making in design. She suggests using the consensus approach as a mean for decision making among people involved in the design process. (Day, Christopher (2002): Consensus Design, Architectural Press)
  • Concept 2: In the movie, the director uses landscape as a mean to make people more aware of the environmental crisis. In addition, we can conclude that landscape may contain meanings and stories about the communities around it as well as an emotional connection with the landscape they live in. (Welk Von Mossner, Alexa (2014): Cinematic Landscapes, In: Topos, No. 88, 2014.)
  • Concept 3: Designers use creative methods (painting, sketching, collage etc.) as a mean to convey their ideas and thoughts to visualize places that are being designed. By drawing meaningful lines designers try to make the space they design precious to the people. Because of that, we need the participation of citizens and people from that area. Only through this kind of collaboration the lines and the design will have their true meaning to the people. (Hester, Randolph: Democratic Drawing - Techniques for Participatory Design)

Author 3: Eric Vitrier

  • Concept 1: How to manage and apply: Environmental Planning, Access-to-information, Legal proceedings / administrative proceedings, Access-to-justice, Governance, Public participation defined by articles
  • Concept 2: The author has developed computer-aided decision support tools to provide training, visualization, and modelling of character design (design-driven, participating community design activities) and other major public seminars. Design information. This tool was created to connect the public with community planning and design professionals. One of the goals of this task is to eliminate important knowledge gaps between experts and stakeholders who are responsible for preparing and evaluating program options. Design features show expectations and preferences for future development through a participatory, qualitative, and design-based approach that appeals to the general public, such as vision and brainstorming techniques. To achieve a more sustainable urban structure, you must support charrete through quantitative methods of modelling and measuring performance based on sustainable development indicators such as housing density and traffic access and services.
  • Concept 3: According to a proposal for a new urbanization in Orange County, California, proposals that try to ignore various kinds of knowledge will damage the experience and common sense of urban residents. In this article, the author talks about how to reintegrate the river in Los Angeles into urban life and the efforts of the US fire department to cope with the crisis of forest fires. In either case, the participants are not even required to expand the story of alternative gifts, promote critical learning, promote coordination and promote the organization of stakeholders. Offering a story is a means to express the subjective symbolic importance of elasticity. We can enlighten and include some voices and we can decide how we can adapt through a self-organizing process and be able to determine profit. How can the community improve the social environmental adaptability of complex urban systems?

Author 4: Rouhollah Rahimi

  • Concept 1: What makes a visually appealing landscape? How can the design and use of a landscape be harmonised? These are just some of the questions tackled in this refreshing approach to the subject. In Elements of Visual Design in the Landscape, the author explains a range of design principles. This new edition includes revised and updated text that will link to other areas of research and disciplines such as aesthetic philosophy and psychology. A third of the photographs have been replaced with new photographs showing better and more recent examples and also reflecting landscape in a wider range of countries.
  • Concept 2: The professions working in the countryside-foresters, land agents, engineers are practical people well versed in the functional side of their work but perhaps not so comfortable when it comes to dealing with visual issues. He believes that it is increasingly important to be able to discuss and use visual design principles in a rational and structured way. The catalogue of principles is not entirely new, being familiar to architects, landscape architects and urban designers, but there is a need to extend their application from built or predominantly urban environments into the wider landscape where three dimensions are more important, where the scale is bigger and where natural patterns and processes predominate over man-made ones.

• Understanding the landscape, the processes that formed it and the pressures for change is an important step before landscape planning or design, especially at a large scale. • It includes more than a geographical understanding – the visual and experiential aspects must be included. • The landscape is “… an area, as perceived by people, whose character is the result of the action and interaction of natural and/or human factors”. • Visual and experiential aspects can be considered from the point of view of the perceiver – in the landscape, as it is seen from various viewpoints. • Other sensory aspects can be noted while out there making analytical sketches.

Author 5: Mahsa Bazrafshan

  • Concept 1: Place-Making

Place-making is defined as an iterative process which required complexity to work in different context, with different communities and for different outcomes. This process emphasized flexibility, embraces impermanence, shares information, and draws on unorthodox sources of influence. The contemporary challenge of place makers is to address the pressing needs of our cities in a way that transcends physical place and empowers communities to address these challenges on an ongoing basis. Put into practice, placemaking seeks to build or improve public space, spark public discourse, create beauty and delight, connect neighbourhoods, support community health and safety, grow social justice, catalyzed economic development, promote environmental sustainability and of course nurture an authentic "sense of place". Regard9ing placemaking concept, authors introduce and analyse placemaking process in 13 different projects in a multi-geographical context.

  • Concept 2: A computer-based Modeling for city decision-makers

This paper describes a model based on computer knowledge to develop a holistic model to meet all needs of urban planners. This tools covered two main categories; First, decision-oriented tools which include workshops and practical courses to involve citizens, Defined as visual, interactive, bottom-up process. Effective techniques will be brain-storming, design gaming, and visualization techniques. second; Analysis-oriented tools for performing the measurements and modelling the cities and future. so-called top-down process in computer modelling which include requiring related algorithms. Authors try to introduce a different type of modelling to reach a better understanding of future modelling.

Step 5: Reflection

Rouhollah Rahimi:Visualization of climate change as part of the wider set of interacting global change influences and drivers of change at the landscape scale, modifed by national development policy and its implementation

Step 6: Revised manifestoes

  • please look again at your initial manifestoes and update them with any new aspects/prespectives you have taken up during this seminar

Assignment 2 - Your Landscape Symbols

  • You can read more details about this assignment here

Landscape Symbols Petar Jurički: ...

Landscape Symbols Susanna Patata: ...

Landscape Symbols Author 3: ...

Landscape Symbols 4: ...

Landscape Symbols Rouhollah Rahimi: ...

Assignment 3 - Role Play on Landscape Democracy "movers and shakers"

  • You can read more details about this assignment here

Petar Jurički - Robert Jungk

Rouhollah Rahimi - Karl Linn

Assignment 4 - Your Landscape Democracy Challenge

  • You can read more details about this assignment here
  • Each group member will specify a landscape democracy challenge in his/her environment
  • Each Landscape Democracy Challenge should be linked to two or three of UN's 17 sustainable development Goals

Landscape Democracy Challenge 1, Rouhollah Rahimi

Your references:

  • - Allison And Other. “Effect of coastal development up on water quality and habitat” .
  • - Kay & Alder.“Coastal planning and management”.

Landscape Democracy Challenge 2, Petar Jurički

Your references:

Landscape Democracy Challenge: Susanna Patata

Your references:

Landscape Democracy Challenge 4, Eric V

Your references:

Landscape Democracy Challenge , Masha's challenge


Assignment 5 - Your Democratic Change Process

  • You can read more details about this assignment here
  • After documenting and reflecting on your challenges you will continue jointly with one of these challenges and design a democratic change process

Your Democratic Change Process


Working on this challenge, and how to change it, made us realise that there are different actors with different power levels involved in the process. In this case are squat residents, individual volunteers, social movements, universities, cooperation office, citizens, landowner and a public administration. 

For understanding this challenge we needed to understand how were they interconnected with each other and to what extent they cooperate or conflict each other. We realised that many factors affect the way that people and professionals perceive the landscape and that the perception of landscape is different from country to country and its culture. So, whatever our professional, cultural, social background is re-thinking our role of movers of the change: educating and activate changing (physical, social...) without impose a classic change scenario.

We concluded that the people should be involved in the planning and design process because the design and plan we are doing, we are doing for the people that live or will live there. In this case it is really important to include people of different economic and social backgrounds and not just the ones that have balanced or high economical or social status. People need to be included in all development processes through workshops, meetings and interaction between them, professionals and government so that the final outcome has the highest possible quality for the people, landscape and urban development of cities. To make this a reality it is also important to consider that in some cases (like this scenario and other poor communities cases) people don’t attend a proper education so it’s important to make them able to understand each technical aspects through tools that could involve, educate and entertain them.

Your references

  • LED lectures
  • New Urban Agenda, Quito Declaration on Sustainable Cities,
  • Lynch K.,, The image of the city,
  • Arnstein S., A ladder of citizen participation,
  • Day C., Consensus Design,
  • Hester R., A refrain with a view,
  • Case studies (Los Angeles Rives…), Urban planning example using,
  • Games, Apps , Toolkits (Block by Block project in Kenya slum, Participatory Chinatown…,
  • Woodcraft, Saffron, et al,, Design for Social Sustainability: a framework for creating thriving new communities,
  • Hester R., Drawing-Technique for Participatory Design,
  • Welk Von Mossner, Alexa (2014): Cinematic Landscapes, In: Topos, No. 88, 2014.