LED Online Seminar 2018 - Working Group 1

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Dear working group members. This is your group page and you will be completing the template gradually as we move through the seminar. Good luck and enjoy your collaboration!

Assignment 1 - Reading and Synthesizing Core Terminology

  • You can read more details about this assignment here
  • Readings are accessible via the resources page

Step 1: Your Landscape Democracy Manifestoes

Step 2: Define your readings

  • Please add your readings selection for the terminology exercise before April 18:

A: Landscape and Democracy

Kucan, Ana (2007). Constructing Landscape Conceptions (Salma Malak Bennasser) 
Burckhardt, Lucius (1979): Why is landscape beautiful? in: Fezer/Schmitz (Eds.) Rethinking Man-made Environments (2012) (Laura Chaverri Flores)
Culture and changing landscape structure.pdf (Abhishek Passan)
Strategic Environmental Assessment Directive  (Rashad Gasimov)
Directive on public access to environmental information (Rashad Gasimov)

B: Concepts of Participation

Day, Christopher (2002): Consensus Design, Architectural Press (Irma Karic)
Sanoff, Henry (2014): Multiple Views of Participatory Design (Salma Malak Bennasser) 
Hester, Randolph (2012): Evaluating Community Design, Landscape Journal (Laura Chaverri Flores)
Arnstein, Sherry R. - A ladder of citizen participation.pdf (Abhishek Passan)
Gaventa, John: The Powerful, the Powerless, and the Experts (Rashad Gasimov)

C: Community and Identity

Welk Von Mossner, Alexa (2014): Cinematic Landscapes, In: Topos, No. 88, 2014 (Irma Karic)
Right to the city.pdf (Abhishek Passan)
Woodend, Lorayne (2013): A Study into the Practice of Machizukuri  (Rashad Gasimov)

D: Designing

Smith, Nicola Dawn(2012): Design Charrette: A Vehicle for Consultation or Collaboration (Irma Karic)
Hester, Randolph: Democratic Drawing - Techniques for Participatory Design (Salma Malak Bennasser) 
Hester, Randolph: Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Sustainable Happiness (Laura Chaverri Flores)
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (2013): Places in the Making: How Placemaking Builds Places and Communities (Rashad Gasimov)

E: Communicating a Vision

Steps 3 and 4: Concepts Selection and definition

  • Each group member selects three relevant concepts derived from his/her readings and synthesize them/publish them on the wiki by May 9, 2018
  • Group members reflect within their groups and define their chosen concepts into a shared definition to be posted on the wiki by June 6, 2018.
  • Other group members will be able to comment on the definitions until June 12, 2018
  • Each group will also report on their process to come to a set of shared definitions of key landscape democracy concepts on the wiki documentation until June 20, 2018

Concepts and definitions

Author 1: Rashad Gasimov

  • Powerful Powerless (Gaventa, John: The Powerful, the Powerless, and the Experts)

With rise of services economy the products are intangible becoming now more valuable. Knowledge is the most precious development that human being reached. Even the limits of the knowledge are not defined yet. That knowledge is distributed as a good/service and has an economical value. This economical value is making knowledge holders more powerful.

  • Public access to environmental data (European Union Law)

Having access to any sort of data in equal rights bringing people together and raising the awareness to the topic. It is a basic right of accessing the information. In this light environmental data becoming more important to raise awareness. So in behalf of public governments are producing the data and it should be shared with the public in easy way that can anyone access this info and use it.

  • Places in the making (Massachusetts Institute of Technology (2013): Places in the Making: How Placemaking Builds Places and Communities )

It is now more and more are questioning the traditional approach of planning as an instrument for neighborhood, city or region. Traditionally giving less importance to the people or users, planning is lacking the design or predictions of inter personal relationships. Thus bringing to revise the planning according to these relationships in every possible sequence. Places in the making is focusing on these relationships and bringing them into the action and planning.

Author 2: Irma Karic

  • Day, Christopher (2002): Consensus Design - When it comes to choosing the proper option for certain design, 'voting' is not the option because some people may agree on it while the rest may not. During the design process the emotions should be included so that common ground between participants can be set. In that sense, even being on the opposite sides of the road, people can find 'a middle' or compromise on which greater majority can agree upon.
  • Welk Von Mossner, Alexa (2014): Cinematic Landscapes - A place we live in is not only characterized by its physical features but certain feelings that are evoked in people's minds while being at or seeing certain place. The cinematic landscapes are usually chosen to support the narrative of the story not just by its physical appearance but by the feeling that they may evoke.
  • Smith, Nicola Dawn(2012): Design Charrette: A Vehicle for Consultation or Collaboration - Charrette represents sets of tools that are used in an early stage of design process where main stakeholders are brought together not for consultation but for co-collaboration speeding up the entire design process with interactive brainstorming and decision making.

Author 3: Abhishek Passan

  • Culture and Changing landscape Structure; As depicted by the name it establishes a relationship between the cultural development and landscape ecology. It establishes to have various experiments also extending the scope to work over the human level as well as having multiple disciplines incorporated.
  • Arnstein Ladder of Citizen Partnership gives an introduction over the form of citizen participation when making claims about the power and also evaluates the existing level of power available with the community at varied levels. It just gives a small glimpse for some levels and also establishes the base for the other levels which are not listed.
  • Right to the city, David Harvey; It establishes a relationship between the level of urbanization or the changes in the development process with the concept of changing individuals identity. Both the systems are directly related and also the extent of power plays a crucial factor in deciding the level of development.

Author 4: Laura Chaverri Flores

  • “Landscape is a construct” (Fezer J., Schmitz M. (2012) Lucius Burckhardt Writings): Landscape is to be found in the mind’s eye of those doing the looking; influenced by the educational background and not in a environmental phenomena. Landscape consists of many different layers: the visual layer of colors; a layer comprising the first hints of natural or technological production infrastructures; and a layer in which social aspects and hence, also a temporal dimension can be identified.
  • Transactive design (Hester, Randolph, 2012, Evaluating Community Design) (Friedmann 1973; Sano 2000): Concept that Friedmann developed, that includes mutual learning between designer and users in the workshops and participatory design. The informed exchange is possible when the designer achieve to walk in the shoes of the users and teach the users to walk in the shoes of the designer. Transactive planner/designer play many roles and “has the responsibility to challenge values just as he or she introduces best practices to make innovative ideas reality”(p.139).
  • Resilient Form (Hester, Randolph): For Randolph Hester the design of the sustainable city must be guided by: enabling form, resilient form and impelling form. The Resilient Form can “repair natural systems that have been stressed to the point of dysfunction and create new forms of habitation that respond joyfully to these limits rather than simply being constrained by them” (p.10).

Author 5: Salma Malak Bennasser

  • Landscape identity: It is the concept of the identification to landscapes. It is a social construct, that is changeable and evolving. It is formed on the basis of the physical reality but transformed by the processes of social communication that help construct a social conception of the landscapes using the social system of values. Kucan, Ana (2007)
  • Representative representation: It is the way drawing is used in order to communicate with communities as honestly and realistically as possible instead of using an idealized misleading picture of the future landscape. In participatory work, drawing is used to collectively visualize, communicate and design not to persuade. Hester, Randolph
  • Collective intelligence: It is a concept that groups, through the process of interaction, are able to come up with a more insightful and powerful solution that the sum of individual perspectives. Sanoff, Henry (2014)

Step 5: Reflection

Landscape is not only characterized by the physical features of the place but also by what this place evokes in people’s minds and the emotions they feel in front of a certain landscape. Landscape is thus a construct consisting of different layers.When designing a landscape, a neighborhood or a city, the design process should give more importance to users as they are the ones holding the local wisdom. They inform about the interpersonal relationships they build with the places and the emotions that those places evoke. Therefore knowledge is precious because it has an economical value and makes the knowledge holders more powerful. Including the people in the design process, since the early stages, with the main stakeholders for a co-collaboration with interaction and brain storming will not only help reach a consensus and a decision rapidly but will also help achieve a more insightful and powerful design through collective intelligence. Citizens have the right to the city and should be able to access environmental data in order to raise awareness and help them participate more effectively in participatory design:There is a close relationship between cultural and individual development and landscape ecology and urbanization. Participatory design should not only aim for the result but also the process, in that context, design should be transactive aiming for a mutual learning between designer and users. In participatory work, designers should not try to persuade people of a certain design but should design together with users while communicating stories, ideas and possibilities. For that drawing is considered one of the most effective ways of communication as it helps to visualize design ideas collectively as honestly and realistically as possible.

Step 6: Revised manifestoes

  • please look again at your initial manifestoes and update them with any new aspects/prespectives you have taken up during this seminar

Assignment 2 - Your Landscape Symbols

  • You can read more details about this assignment here

Landscape Symbols Author 1: Rashad Gasimov

Landscape Symbols Author 2: Irma Karic

Landscape Symbols Auther 3: Abhishek Passan

Landscape Symbols Author 4: Laura Chaverri Flores

Landscape Symbols Author 5: Salma Malak Bennasser

Assignment 3 - Role Play on Landscape Democracy "movers and shakers"

  • You can read more details about this assignment here

Irma Karic: Robert Jungk (Zukunftswerkstatt) Laura Chaverri: Jan Gehl

Assignment 4 - Your Landscape Democracy Challenge

  • You can read more details about this assignment here
  • Each group member will specify a landscape democracy challenge in his/her environment
  • Each Landscape Democracy Challenge should be linked to two or three of UN's 17 sustainable development Goals

Landscape Democracy Challenge 1

Your references:

Landscape Democracy Challenge 2 Irma Karic

Your references:

Landscape Democracy Challenge 3 Abhishek Passan

Your references:

Landscape Democracy Challenge 4. Laura Chaverri Flores

Your references:

Landscape Democracy Challenge 5 Salma Malak Bennasser

Your references:

Assignment 5 - Your Democratic Change Process

  • You can read more details about this assignment here
  • After documenting and reflecting on your challenges you will continue jointly with one of these challenges and design a democratic change process

Your Democratic Change Process


The basic idea for studying the change model is to understand about the concepts of :

  • How to involve people at every crucial step for having a change ?
  • To have a holistic approach for the change process and also to target the overall problems for the area.
  • To target the major causes for the deterioration of area



  • Assessment of existing plans and policies and projects which can have a certain impact over the existing situations and problems.
  • Removal of walls between the communities so as to enhance the development process.
  • Provision of facilities as per the time extent for the change process.
  • Having social processes such as workshops, seminars so as to enhance the understanding for every part of the community.


  • Managing the cultivated spaces in the long run
  • Removing illegal constructions

Your references

  • Burckhardt, Lucius (1979): Why is landscape beautiful? in: Fezer/Schmitz (Eds.) Rethinking Man-made Environments (2012)
  • Hester, Randolph. (2001). What Makes Participation Exemplary? [EDRA / Places Awards -- Juror Comment]. 34.
  • Hester, Randolph. (1995). Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Sustainable Happiness. 4.
  • Kucan, Ana (2007). Constructing Landscape Conceptions
  • Municipalidad de Curridabat (2017). Retrieved from http://www.curridabat.go.cr
  • UN Sustainable Development Goals. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/
  • Wates, Nick (2000). The community planning handbook: How people can shape their cities, towns and villages in any part of the world. London: Earthscan.