Resources and Literature Landscape and Democracy
- 1 General: Materials and Recordings
- 2 A: Democratic Landscape Transformation - Mapping the Terrain
- 3 Phase B: Democratic Landscape Analysis and Assessment
- 4 Concepts of Participation
- 5 Community and Identity
- 6 Designing
- 7 Communicating a Vision
General: Materials and Recordings
- LED2LEAP 2020 Materials and Recordings (open access)
- LED 2019 Materials and Recordings (open access)
- LED 2018 Materials and Recordings (open access)
- LED 2017 Materials and Recordings (open access)
- LED 2016 Materials and Recordings (open access)
A: Democratic Landscape Transformation - Mapping the Terrain
Policy frameworks, laws and resolutions
- The New Urban Agenda Quito Declaration on Sustainable Cities and Human Settlements for All, UN resolution from December 2016
- The Aarhus Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters
Council of Europe
- The European Landscape Convention
- Presentation of the report Landscape and democracy: prospects by Yves Luginbühl for the Council of Europe
European Union (Parliament and Council)
- Directive on public access to environmental information
- Directive providing for public participation in respect of the drawing up of certain plans and programmes relating to the environment
- Strategic Environmental Assessment Directive
- Water Framework Directive
- Policy Review: Past, present and future of democracy, 2019
International Federation of Landscape Architects (IFLA-Europe)
European Council of Spatial Planners
Democratic landscape transformation
- Shelley Egoz, Jala Makhzoumi and Gloria Pungetti (2011): The Right to Landscape: An Introduction, in: The Right to Landscape: Contesting Landscape and Human Rights
- The Just City Essays - 26 Visions for Urban Equity, Inclusion and Opportunity
- Jean McNiff (2002): Action Research for Professional Development - Concise advise for new action researchers
- John Kania & Mark Kramer (2011): Collective Impact, Stanford Social Innovation Review
- Schneidewind, Uwe et al (2016): Pledge for a Transformative Science - A conceptual framework
- Rittel, Webber (1973): Dilemmas in a General Theory of Planning
- Merlijn van Hulst (2012): Storytelling, a model of and a model for planning
Accompanying lecture reading: Bruns/Bartolomei, 2016 'Concepts of Landscape'
- Antrop, Marc; Kühne, Olaf (2015) Concepts of Landscape, in: Landscape Culture - Culturing Landscapes. The Differentiated Construction of Landscapes (Bruns, Kühne, Schönwald, Theile ed.)
- Burckhardt, Lucius (1979): Why is landscape beautiful? in: Fezer/Schmitz (Eds.) Rethinking Man-made Environments (2012)
- Cosgrove, Denis (2004): Landscape and Landschaft. Lecture delivered at the “Spatial Turn in History” Symposium, German Historical Institute, February 19, 2004.
- Cosgrove, Denis. (1985): Prospect, Perspective and the Evolution of the Landscape Idea. In: Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, New Series, Vol. 10, No. 1 (1985),pp. 45-62. Published by: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers).
- Kucan, Ana (2007). Constructing Landscape Conceptions. In: ECLAS (ed.). JoLA spring 2007, 30-41. Munich: Callwey.
- Jackson, John Brinckerhoff (1980): "By way of conclusion. How to study the landscape" In: The necessity for ruins, and other topics, 113-126. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.
- Lynch, Kevin. (1960): The Image of the City, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press
- Meinig, D. W. (1979): "The Beholding Eye: Ten Versions of the Same Scene." In: The Interpretation of Ordinary Landscapes: Geographical Essays, edited by D. W. Meinig and John Brinckerhoff Jackson, 33-48. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Meinig, D.W. (1979): "Reading the landscape. An appreciation of W.G. Hoskins and J-B. Jackson." In: The Interpretation of ordinary landscapes: Geographical essays, edited by D. W. Meinig and John Brinckerhoff Jackson, 195-237. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Olwig, Kenneth R. (1996): "Recovering the Substantive Nature of Landscape" In: Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 86 (4), pp. 630-653. Cambridge/Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
- Sieverts, Thomas (2003): Cities without cities. An interpretation of the Zwischenstadt. English language ed. London: Spon Press.
Phase B: Democratic Landscape Analysis and Assessment
- Angotti,Tom; Doble,Cheryl; Horrigan; Paula: At the boundaries: The Shifting Sites of Service-Learning in Design and Planning
- Cooke, Bill et al: The case of participation as a tyranny
- de la Pena, David et al: Design as Democracy (Techniques Part)
- Ganz, Marshall: Leading Change: Leadership, Organization, and Social Movements
- Hester, Randy: Labors of Love in the Public Landscape
- Landscape Democracy Tool Box (status April 2020)
Concepts of Participation
- Arnstein, Sherry R.(1969): A Ladder of Citizen Participation, JAIP, Vol. 35, No. 4
- Hester, Randolph (1999): A Refrain with a View, UC Berkeley
- Hester, Randolph (2005): Whose Politics, Landscape Architecture
- Sanoff, Henry (2014): Multiple Views of Participatory Design, Focus
- Davis, Mike (1990): Fortress Los Angeles: The Militarization of Urban Space, From: City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles
- Gaventa, John: The Powerful, the Powerless, and the Experts
- Hester, Randolph (2012): Evaluating Community Design, Landscape Journal
- Day, Christopher (2002): Consensus Design, Architectural Press
- Furco, Andrew (1996): Service-learning: A balanced approach to experiential education
Further recommended readings and resources:
- Burckhardt, Lucius (1957): Urban Planning and Democracy in: Fezer/Schmitz (Eds.) Rethinking Man-made Environments (2012)
- Burckhardt, Lucius (1974): Who plans the planning? in: Fezer/Schmitz (Eds.) Rethinking Man-made Environments (2012)
- David, Harvey (2003): The Right to the City, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Volume 27, Issue 4, pages 939–941
- Freire, Paulo (2000): Pedagogy of the Oppressed, Continuum
- Park, Peter: What Is Participatory Research? A Theoretical and Methodological Perspective
- Selle, Klaus (1994): Was ist bloß mit der Planung los? Erkundungen auf dem Weg zum kooperativen Handeln.(GERMAN, not open access)
- LIFEscape Handbook on Participative Landscape Planning
- Hester, Randolph (2006): Design for Ecological Democracy - Fairness, The MIT Press
Community and Identity
- Hester, Randolph (2006): Design for Ecological Democracy, The MIT Press
- Spirn, Anne (2005): Restoring Mill Creek
- Welk Von Mossner, Alexa (2014): Cinematic Landscapes, In: Topos, No. 88, 2014.
- Gafford, Farrah D. (2013): It Was a Real Village: Community Identity Formation Among Black Middle-Class Residents in Pontchartrain Park, Journal of Urban History 39:36
- Woodend, Lorayne (2013): A Study into the Practice of Machizukuri, RTPI
Further recommended readings and resources:
- Girling, Cynthia (2006): Informing Design Charrettes, The Integrated Assessment Journal
- Nassauer, Joan Iverson (1995): Culture and Changing Landscape Structure, Landscape Ecology, vol. 10 no. 4.
- SEISMIC project, An urban research and innovation project across 10 European countries
- URBACT programme, The European Territorial Cooperation programme aiming to foster sustainable integrated urban development across Europe
- CBS, Community-Built Association of the U.S.
- Francis, Mark: A Case Study Method for Landscape Architecture
- Hester, Randolph (2006): Design for Ecological Democracy - Sacredness, The MIT Press
- Hester, Randolph: Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Sustainable Happiness
- Kot, Douglas and Ruggeri, Deni: Westport Case Study
- Hester, Randolph: Democratic Drawing - Techniques for Participatory Design
- Smith, Nicola Dawn(2012): Design Charrette: A Vehicle for Consultation or Collaboration
- Massachusetts Institute of Technology (2013): Places in the Making: How Placemaking Builds Places and Communities
A compilation of methods
- Wates, Nick: The Community Planning Handbook: How people can shape their cities, towns & villages in any part of the world (2nd ed 2014, Routledge)
Further recommended readings and resources:
- Ruggeri, Deni (2004): Crafting Westport, Department of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning, University of California, Berkeley , CA (co-author)
- Woodcraft, Saffron, et al.: Design for Social Sustainability: A Framework for Creating Thriving New Communities
- Salgado, Mariana, et al. (2015): Designing with Immigrants
- Hussain, Sofia, et al. (2012): Participatory Design with Marginalized People in Developing Countries: Challenges and Opportunties Experienced in a Field Study in Cambodia, International Journal of Design, Vol. 6, No. 2
- Hester, Randolph (2006): Design for Ecological Democracy - Everyday Future, The MIT Press
- Pritzker Prize winning architect Alejandro Aravena on sustainable design and community involvement in Chile
- D’hondt, Frank (2014): Better Cities for Kosovo: Visioning as Participatory Planning Tool,UN-Habitat report
- Vall, N. (2013): Social engineering and participation in Anglo-Swedish housing 1945–1976: Ralph Erskine's vernacular plan, Planning Perspectives, 28(2), 223-245
- Sanoff, Henry (2010): Democratic Design - Library access only.
- Sanoff, Henry (1999): Community participation methods in design and planning - Library access only.
- de la Pena, David et al(2017): Design and Democracy: Techniques for Collective Creativity Library access only
Communicating a Vision
- Storytelling example from the Scottish Islands
- Online decision making with loomio
- A toolkit for transforming abandoned spaces through the arts. https://issuu.com/mahatat/docs/toolkit_en._final_issuu
- Potteiger, Matthew, and Jamie Purinton. 1998. Landscape narratives: design practices for telling stories. New York: J. Wiley. GoogleBook.
- Lejano, Raul P., Mrill Ingram, and Helen M. Ingram. 2013. The power of narrative in environmental networks. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Case study - Water Square Benthemplein
- Boer, Florian, Jens Jorritsma, and Dirk van Peijpe. 2010. De Urbanisten and the wondrous water square. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers. Webpage and Video
Case study - Los Angeles River
- Goldstein, B. E., A. T. Wessells, R. Lejano, and W. Butler. 2015. Narrating Resilience: Transforming Urban Systems Through Collaborative Storytelling. Urban Studies. 52 (7): 1285-1303.
- Friends of the Los Angeles River (FoLAR). Flyer about their activities connected to the river. City walk, environmental education, and other water-related activities could be searched on their websites.
- Brownson, Omar, and Marsh, Emily. Urban Coast 4/1. December 2013. Los Angeles River 3.0: Changing the course of Los Angeles.
Learning democracy theory
- Council of Europe. 2016. Competences for democratic culture: living together as equals in culturally diverse democratic societies.
- Bir̂zeá, Ceśar. 2000. Education for democratic citizenship: a lifelong learning perspective. Strasbourg: Council for Cultural Co-operation of the Council of Europe.
- Brander, Patricia. 2012. Compass: manual for human rights education with young people. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
- Huber, Josef, Pascale Mompoint-Gaillard, and Ildikó Lázár. 2015. TASKs for democracy: 60 activities to learn and assess transversal attitudes, skills and knowledge.
Games in urban planning examples
- BUG project: http://www.decisionproblem.com/bug/bug2.html
- Participatory Chinatown: http://www.participatorychinatown.org
- Stadtspieler: http://www.stadtspieler.com
- Block By Block: http://blockbyblock.org/about
Apps, webpages, toolkits
- Online debate app http://plugins.speakol.com
- CitySwipe App - the fastest way for you to tell us what you like and don't like about your Downtown http://www.dtsmcityswipe.com
- EngagementLab - From playing games, to making media, to running campaigns https://elab.emerson.edu/about
- Participedia - catalogue and compare the performance of participatory political processes https://participedia.net/en/about
- Online toolbox with the most important engagement tools and their descriptions. https://www.publicengagement.ac.uk/do-it/techniquesapproaches